computer repairs
Mike Burridge  Mike Burridge
Computer upgrades, repairs, web hosting, design and programming.
 
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aHampshire
  
Internet terms and glossary  

Address mask (Subnet Mask)
This is used to recognize the sections of an IP address that concur with the different parts. Also known as the "subnet mask".

Alias
A nickname that refers to a network resource.

Anonymous FTP
This is a method of bypassing security checks when you logon to an FTP site. This is done by typing "anonymous" as your user ID and your e-mail address as the password.

Application
A program that performs a task for a certain purpose.

Archie
A method of automatically collecting, indexing, and retrieving files from the Internet.

ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode)
A transfer mode that designates bandwidth using a fixed-size packet or cell. Also called a "fast packet".

Authentication
A method of identifying the user to make sure the user is who he says he is.

Bandwidth
A measurement in Hz that reads the difference between the highest and lowest frequencies of a transmission.

BBS (Bulletin Board System)
A computer which provides file archives, email, and announcements of interest. Users usually dial in with a terminal program to access these.

Bounce
This term refers to when you send an e-mail to a non-existent recipient and the e-mail is "bounced" back to you.

BTW
By the way.

Bulletin Board System (BBS)
A computer which provides file archives, email, and announcements of interest. Users usually dial in with a terminal program to access these.

CHAP (Challenge-Handshake Authentication Protocol)
A method of authentication when connecting to an Internet service provider.

CHAT
Conversational Hypertext Access Technology.

CIX
Commercial Internet Exchange.

Client
An application that performs for a certain purpose.

Cracker
Persons who attempt to gain illegal access to computers. Not to be confused with hackers.

Cyberspace
According to William Gibson, "the world of computers and the society that gathers around them."

Data Encryption Key (DEK)
Used for encryption and decryption of message text.

Data Encryption Standard (DES)
Standardized encryption method used most on the Internet.

Datagram
A block of data that can travel from one Internet site to another without relying on an earlier exchange between the source and destination computers.

DDN (Defense Data Network)
The United States Department of Defense global communications network.

DECnet
A proprietary network protocol designed by Digital Equipment Corporation.

Dedicated line
A communications line used solely for computer connections, such as T1 and T3 lines. An additional phone line solely for your modem is a dedicated line as well.

Defense Data Network (DDN)
The United States Department of Defense global communications network.

Dial-up networking
Most widely used way of accessing the Internet. This involves one computer connecting to another by way of a modem.

DNS (Domain Name Service)
A name service used with TCP/IP hosts. A DNS exists on numerous servers over the Internet. It is a database for finding host names and IP addresses on the Internet and trying to figure them out.

Domain
An area on host or an IP address. e.g. http://www.burridgeitservices.com

Domain Name Service (DNS)
A name service used with TCP/IP hosts. A DNS exists on numerous servers over the Internet. It is a database for finding host names and IP addresses on the Internet and trying to figure them out.

Dot address
IP addresses in the form of 1.1.1.1 in a 4-byte IP address where each number is equal to 1 byte.

Electronic mail (e-mail)
Electronic mail, or e-mail, is a way users with a computer can send messages between each other easily and more quickly than regular mail.

E-mail address
A person's email address is usually like this:
Userid@domain.com
Userid represents the identification of the person, the @ is what separates the userid from the domain name, and the domain name refers to the host that the person is using.

Encryption
This is what Internet security is built upon. Encryption will scramble information so it is readable only by the intended recipient.

Ethernet
An Ethernet connection is a LAN (Local Area Network) that consists of computers connected by twisted-pair or coaxial cable.

FAQ
Stands for Frequently Asked Questions. FAQ's are available almost anywhere on the Internet. FAQ's are usually used as a place to look for help or advice when working on the Internet or on your computer.

File Transfer Protocol
(FTP)
FTP's are the most widely used format to uploading and downloading files on an Internet connection. FTP's are used so computers can share files between each other.

Finger
A finger is a UNIX command that displays information about a group or user on the Internet.

Flame
This is a negative response to a newsgroup posting or e-mail message. If makes a newsgroup post or sends an e-mail message that is deemed inappropriate, they might get flamed. The most popular method of flaming is a mail bomb. This is where the sender or poster receives an overwhelming amount of messages in his or her mailbox and their system can crash.

Follow-up
A response to a newsgroup posting or e-mail message.

FTP (File Transfer Protocol)
FTP's are the most widely used format to uploading and downloading files on an Internet connection. FTP's are used so computers can share files between each other.

Gopher
A search and retrieval tool for information used mostly for research.

Hacker
A user of a computer who attempts to understand the particulars of a computer. A hacker will look for ways around things while using a computer.

Host
Any computer that is connected to the Internet or a network.

Host address
The address of the host computer which is on the Internet.

HTML (Hypertext Markup Language)
HTML stands for Hypertext Markup Language. This is the standard method of publishing web documents onto the World Wide Web (WWW). HTML consists of tags surrounded by brackets.

Hypermedia
A combination of hypertext and multimedia in a document online.

Hypertext
A kind of text that permits embedded links to other documents.

Hypertext Markup Language (HTML)
HTML stands for Hypertext Markup Language. This is the standard method of publishing web documents onto the World Wide Web (WWW). HTML consists of tags surrounded by brackets.

Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN)
Combines digital network services and voice into one. Users can access digital services at 115,200 bps.

Internet
A vast, uncontrolled network of computers that is available almost anywhere in the world. Basically, when you sign on to the Internet, you become a part of it.

Internet protocol (IP)
A packet switching protocol that is used as a network layer in the TCP/IP protocol suite.

Internet Protocol Address
(IP Address)
Each computer is assigned an IP address. These are similar to phone numbers. When you attempt to connect to an IP address, you will connect to the computer with that IP address.
Internet Relay Chat (IRC)


Internet Relay Chat
(or IRC)
allows users to chat on different channels over the Internet. IRC channels are preceded by a # sign and are controlled by channel operators. Channel operators can kick people out of the channel if he or she feels necessary.

Internet Service Provider (ISP)
An organization or company that has a network with a direct link to the Internet. This is done by using a dedicated line connection, usually through a link known as a T1 connection. Users can dial into to that network using their modem.

IP (Internet Protocol)
A packet switching protocol that is used as a network layer in the TCP/IP protocol suite.

IP Address (Internet Protocol Address)
Each computer is assigned an IP address. These are similar to phone numbers. When you attempt to connect to an IP address, you will connect to the computer with that IP address.


IRC (Internet Relay Chat)
Internet Relay Chat, or IRC, allows users to chat on different channels over the Internet. IRC channels are preceded by a # sign and are controlled by channel operators. Channel operators can kick people out of the channel if he or she feels necessary.

ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network)
Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) combines digital network services and voice into one. Users can access digital services at 115,200 bps.

ISP (Internet Service Provider)
An organization or company that has a network with a direct link to the Internet. This is done by using a dedicated line connection, usually through a link known as a T1 connection. Users can dial into to that network using their modem.

LAN
Local Area Network. A LAN allows users to share files between computers, send e-mail and access the Internet. Most companies use Local Area Networks so that users can access information within or outside the LAN.

Leased line
A leased line is a dedicated line that connects a user or network to another network or an ISP.

Listserv
An automated mailing list distribution system.

Lurking
Lurking involves simply listening or watching and not participating on an IRC channel, a mailing list, or some other type of Internet connection.

Mail reflector
A mail reflector is a program that distributes information or files to a subscriber of a mailing list, Usenet group, or an IRC channel.

Mailing list
A mailing list is a list of e-mail addresses used to have messages forwarded to groups of people.

MIME (Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions)
Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions, or MIME, is the standard way to organize different file formats. For example, if you receive an e-mail, which is in a different format than yours, the file will be decoded so you can read it using MIME.

Mirror site
A mirror site is usually set up due to overwhelming traffic on an existing web site. A mirror site is a site that is kept separate from the original site but contains the same information as that site. This is an alternative to users who attempt to go to a web site but cannot due to traffic problems.

Moderator
A person who manages online discussion groups or mailing lists for services such as CompuServe, America Online, Prodigy or the Microsoft Network.

Mosaic
A graphical browser that supports hypermedia on the World Wide Web (WWW).

Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME)
Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions, or MIME, is the standard way to organize different file formats. For example, if you receive an e-mail, which is in a different format than yours, the file will be decoded so you can read it using MIME.

Netiquette
Internet etiquette. This refers to proper behavior while using the Internet.

Network File System (NFS)
A Network File System allows a computer to access and use files over a network, just as if it were a local network.

Network News Transfer Protocol (NNTP)
A standard industry protocol for the inquiry, distribution, retrieval, and posting of news articles.

NFS (Network File System)
A Network File System allows a computer to access and use files over a network, just as if it were a local network.

NNTP (Network News Transfer Protocol)
A standard industry protocol for the inquiry, distribution, retrieval, and posting of news articles.

Packet
A standard unit of data sent across a network.

Packet Internet Gopher (PING)
A Packet Internet Gopher, or PING, is a simple way to time or test the response of an Internet connection. A PING sends a request to an Internet host and waits for a reply message called, what else, a PONG.

PAP (Password Authentication Protocol)
A widely used method to log on to an ISP without using a terminal window.

Password Authentication Protocol (PAP)
A widely used method to log on to an ISP without using a terminal window.

PING (Packet Internet Gopher)
A Packet Internet Gopher, or PING, is a simple way to time or test the response of an Internet connection. A PING sends a request to an Internet host and waits for a reply message called, what else, a PONG.

Point of Presence (POP)
Installation of telecommunications equipment.

Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP)
A PPP is a protocol that provides a method for sending and receiving packets over serial point-to-point links.

POP
Installation of telecommunications equipment (Point of Presence). A protocol that allows single users to read mail from a server (Post Office Protocol).

Post Office Protocol (POP)
A protocol that allows single users to read mail from a server.

Posting
Sending an article to a BBS or a Usenet newsgroup.

PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol)
A PPP is a protocol that provides a method for sending and receiving packets over serial point-to-point links.

Protocol
A language spoken between computers to assist each other in sending and receiving information.

Router
A device that forwards traffic between networks.

Serial Line Internet Protocol (SLIP)
A standard protocol which is used to run TCP/IP over a serial line. SLIP, however, will not run on a Local Area Network (LAN) connection.

Server
Any computer that can provide resources to another.

service provider (Internet Service Provider)
An organization or company that has a network with a direct link to the Internet. Using a dedicated line connection, usually through a link known as a T1 connection does this. Users can dial into to that network using their modem. Most ISP's now charge a monthly fee.

SIG (Special Interest Group)
A Special Interest Group, or SIG, sponsors different items such as IRC Channels, Listservs, and Internet Sites.

signature
Type that can be automatically added to the end of an e-mail message that will identify the sender. Signatures are usually ASCII text files.

Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP)
A standard protocol used to transfer e-mail messages.

Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP)
A standard Internet protocol. It is commonly used to wire hubs.

SLIP (Serial Line Internet Protocol)
A standard protocol which is used to run TCP/IP over a serial line. SLIP, however, will not run on a Local Area Network (LAN) connection.

Smiley
The use punctuation marks to show feelings and emotions. For example, a smiley face is :), and a sad face would be :(

SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol)
A standard protocol used to transfer e-mail messages.

SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol)
A standard Internet protocol. It is commonly used to wire hubs.

Special Interest Group (SIG)
A Special Interest Group, or SIG, sponsors different items such as IRC Channels, Listservs, and Internet Sites.

Subnet mask (Address Mask)
This is used to recognize the sections of an IP address that concur with the different parts. Also known as the "subnet mask".

T1
A connection of a host to the Internet where data is transferred at 1.544 megabits per second.

T3
A connection of a host to the Internet where data is transferred at 44.746 megabits per second.

TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol)
Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol, or TCP/IP, is the basic communications protocol required for computers that use the Internet.

TCP/IP Stack
This is needed to properly run a TCP/IP protocol. It is made up of TCP/IP software, hardware drivers, and sockets software.

Telnet
This is the standard Internet protocol to connect to remote terminals.

TN3270
A slightly different protocol than Telnet, TN3270 is used to connect users to an IBM mainframe.

Token ring
A token ring is a kind of LAN that consists of computers that are wired into a ring. Each computer is constantly in direct contact with the next node in the ring. A token, which is a type of control message, is sent from one node to another, allowing messages to be sent throughout the network. A Token Ring network cannot communicate within itself if one ring is broken.

Topology
The arrangement of all the computers on a network and the links that join them.

Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP)
Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol, or TCP/IP, is the basic communications protocol required for computers that use the Internet.

Universal Resource Locator (URL)
An example of a URL would be http://www.computertips.com. A Universal Resource Locator refers to the universal address of an Internet web page. A URL consists of three things. First, it starts with letters such as http, ftp, or gopher that identify the resource type, followed by a colon and two forward slashes. Next, the computer's name is listed. And finally, the filename and directory of the remote resource is listed as well.

UNIX to UNIX Copy (UUCP)
A protocol that passes e-mail and news through the Internet. Originally, UUCP allowed UNIX systems to send and receive files over phone lines.

URL (Universal Resource Locator)
An example of a URL would be http://www.computertips.com. A Universal Resource Locator refers to the universal address of an Internet web page. A URL consists of three things. First, it starts with letters such as http, ftp, or gopher that identify the resource type, followed by a colon and two forward slashes. Next, the computer's name is listed. And finally, the filename and directory of the remote resource is listed as well.

Usenet
A.K.A. newsgroups. There are a vast number of different newsgroups worldwide on the Internet, available to almost anyone.

UUCP (UNIX to UNIX Copy)
A protocol that passes e-mail and news through the Internet. Originally, UUCP allowed UNIX systems to send and receive files over phone lines.

Veronica
Allows searches of all gopher sites for directories, files, and other resources. Veronica is a search engine that is built into Gopher.

W3 (World Wide Web)
A collection of online documents on Internet servers worldwide. World Wide Web documents are written in HTML. In order to use the World Wide Web, you must have a World Wide Web browser.

WAIS (Wide Area Information Service)

A search engine and distributed information service that allows indexed searching and natural language input.

White Pages
Databases containing postal addresses, telephone numbers, and e-mail addresses of users on the Internet.

Wide Area Information Service (WAIS)
A search engine and distributed information service that allows indexed searching and natural language input.

Winsocks
Acronym for Windows Sockets. A set of standards and specifications for programmers who are programming a TCP/IP application to use in Windows.

World Wide Web (W3, WWW)
A collection of online documents on Internet servers worldwide. World Wide Web documents are written in HTML. In order to use the World Wide Web, you must have a World Wide Web browser.

 

 
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